The following list of websites can be used to enhance your curriculum; however, CASHE is not responsible for their website content. These websites are provided as a teacher resource.
You will start hearing: “HEY TEACH” (as Bel Kaufman coined), “What is this EEbowla stuff?” or “NO me first, what is the thing that EATS your face off” or My aunt said something about bird coughing, no, whooping cough” or “Don’t eat chicken or you will get CZARS.”
OK TEACH: Be prepared for the kids coming back with a zillion questions about diseases this summer because of the EBOLA outbreak that is going on right now. SCROLL DOWN SOME FOR INFORMATION ON ZIKA FROM THE CDC – THE KIDS WILL BE ASKING!!!
Get informed, learn the facts?
The best SAFE source for any disease is at CDC.gov. In the the case of Ebola (Ebola Hemorrhagic Fever) go to: www.cdc.gov/vhf/ebola/outbreaks/guinea/index.html FOR MERS AND WEST NILE DISEASE UPDATES GO TO CDC.GOV AND SEARCH MERS OR WEST NILE AND READ BELOW: IF YOU NEED LOS ANGELES COUNTY HEALTH DATA (FOR WEST NILE AND WHOOPING COUGH AND OTHERS, go to www.publichealth.lacounty.gov. This site is similar to the CDC site but is all LOCAL Los Angeles County info.
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Zika Virus Disease Q & A
What is Zika Virus disease (Zika)?
Zika is a disease caused by Zika virus that is spread to people primarily through the bite of an infected Aedes species mosquito. The most common symptoms of Zika
are fever, rash, joint pain, and conjunctivitis (red eyes). The illness is usually mild with symptoms lasting for several days to a week.
What are the symptoms of Zika?
About one in five people infected with Zika will get sick. For people who get sick, the illness is usually mild. For this reason, many people might not realize they have
The most common symptoms of Zika virus disease are fever, rash, joint pain, or conjunctivitis (red eyes). Symptoms typically begin 2 to 7 days after being bitten by an
How is Zika transmitted?
Zika is primarily transmitted through the bite of infected Aedes mosquitoes. It can also be transmitted from a pregnant mother to her baby during pregnancy or around
the time of birth. We do not know how often Zika is transmitted from mother to baby during pregnancy or around the time of birth.
Who is at risk of being infected?
Anyone who is living in or traveling to an area where Zika virus is found who has not already been infected with Zika virus is at risk for infection, including pregnant
What countries have Zika?
Specific areas where Zika virus transmission is ongoing are often difficult to determine and are likely to change over time. Please visit the CDC Travelers’ Health site
(http://wwwnc.cdc.gov/travel/page/zika-travel-information) for the most updated information.
What can people do to prevent becoming infected with Zika?
There is no vaccine to prevent Zika. The best way to prevent diseases spread by mosquitoes is to avoid being bitten. Protect yourself and your family from mosquito
bites. Here’s how:
Wear long-sleeved shirts and long pants.
Stay in places with air conditioning or that use window and door screens to keep mosquitoes outside.
Use Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)-registered insect repellents. All EPA-registered insect repellents are evaluated for safety and effectiveness.
Always follow the product label instructions.
Reapply insect repellent every few hours.
Do not spray repellent on the skin under clothing.
If you are also using sunscreen, apply sunscreen before applying insect repellent.
If you have a baby or child:
Do not use insect repellent on babies younger than 2 months of age.
Dress your child in clothing that covers arms and legs, or
Cover crib, stroller, and baby carrier with mosquito netting.
Do not apply insect repellent onto a child’s hands, eyes, mouth, and cut or irritated skin.
Adults: Spray insect repellent onto your hands and then apply to a child’s face.
Treat clothing and gear with permethrin or purchase permethrin-treated items.
Treated clothing remains protective after multiple washings. See product information to learn how long the protection will last.
If treating items yourself, follow the product instructions carefully.
Do NOT use permethrin products directly on skin. They are intended to treat clothing.
Sleep under a mosquito bed net if you are overseas or outside and are not able to protect yourself from mosquito bites.
What is the treatment for Zika?
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There is no vaccine or specific medicine to treat Zika virus infections.
Treat the symptoms:
Get plenty of rest.
Drink fluids to prevent dehydration.
Take medicines such as acetaminophen or paracetamol to reduce fever and pain.
Do not take aspirin or other non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs.
If you are taking medicine for another medical condition, talk to your healthcare provider before taking additional medication.
How is Zika diagnosed?
See your healthcare provider if you develop symptoms (fever, rash, joint pain, red eyes). If you have recently traveled, tell your healthcare provider.
Your healthcare provider may order blood tests to look for Zika or other similar viral diseases like dengue or chikungunya.
What should I do if I have Zika?
Treat the symptoms:
Get plenty of rest
Drink fluids to prevent dehydration
Take medicines such as acetaminophen or paracetamol to reduce fever and pain
Do not take aspirin or other non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs
Protect others [PDF – 1 page]: During the first week of infection, Zika virus can be found in the blood and passed from an infected person to another mosquito
through mosquito bites. An infected mosquito can then spread the virus to other people. To help prevent others from getting sick, avoid mosquito bites during the first
week of illness.
See your healthcare provider if you are pregnant and develop a fever, rash, joint pain, or red eyes within 2 weeks after traveling to a country where Zika virus cases
have been reported. Be sure to tell your health care provider where you traveled.
Is there a vaccine to prevent or medicine to treat Zika?
No. There is no vaccine to prevent infection or medicine to treat Zika.
Does Zika virus infection in pregnant women cause birth defects?
There have been reports of a serious birth defect of the brain called microcephaly (a condition in which a baby’s head is smaller than expected when compared to
babies of the same sex and age) and other poor pregnancy outcomes in babies of mothers who were infected with Zika virus while pregnant. Knowledge of the link
between Zika and these outcomes is evolving, but until more is known, CDC recommends special precautions for the following groups:
Women who are pregnant (in any trimester):
Consider postponing travel to any area where Zika virus transmission is ongoing.
If you must travel to one of these areas, talk to your doctor first and strictly follow steps to prevent mosquito bites (http://wwwnc.cdc.gov/travel/page/avoidbug-
bites) during your trip.
Women who are trying to become pregnant:
Before you travel, talk to your doctor about your plans to become pregnant and the risk of Zika virus infection.
Strictly follow steps to prevent mosquito bites (http://wwwnc.cdc.gov/travel/page/avoid-bug-bites) during your trip.
For more questions and answers on Zika and pregnancy, see Questions and Answers: Zika and Pregnancy.
Does Zika virus infection cause Guillain-Barre syndrome (GBS)?
Guillain-Barre syndrome (GBS) is a rare disorder where a person’s own immune system damages the nerve cells, causing muscle weakness and sometimes, paralysis.
These symptoms can last a few weeks or several months. While most people fully recover from GBS, some people have permanent damage and in rare cases, people
The Brazil Ministry of Health is currently reporting an increase in GBS cases that have occurred at the same time as their outbreak of Zika virus, and similar increases
in GBS have been reported following past outbreaks of Zika in other countries. CDC will be conducting a study in Brazil beginning in late January to determine if any
relationship exists between Zika virus infection and Guillain-Barre Syndrome.
Is this a new virus?
No. Outbreaks of Zika previously have been reported in tropical Africa, Southeast Asia, and the Pacific Islands. Zika virus likely will continue to spread to new areas. In
May 2015, the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO) issued an alert regarding the first confirmed Zika virus infection in Brazil.
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How many travel-associated cases have been diagnosed in the United States?
CDC continues to work with states to monitor the United States for mosquito-borne diseases, including Zika. To date, local transmission of Zika virus has not been
identified in the continental United States. Limited local transmission may occur in the mainland United States but it’s unlikely that we will see widespread
transmission of Zika in the mainland United States. Because of the seriousness of Zika to pregnant women and in response to the largest reported Zika outbreak, CDC
and the Council of State and Territorial Epidemiologists have worked together to confirm that Zika is now a notifiable condition in the United States.
Should we be concerned about Zika in the United States?
The U.S. mainland does have Aedes species mosquitoes that can become infected with and spread Zika virus. U.S. travelers who visit a country where Zika is found
could become infected if bitten by a mosquito.
With the recent outbreaks, the number of Zika virus disease cases among travelers visiting or returning to the United States will likely increase. These imported cases
may result in local spread of the virus in some areas of the United States. CDC has been monitoring these epidemics and is prepared to address cases imported into the
United States and cases transmitted locally.
What is CDC doing about Zika?
CDC has been aware of Zika for some time and has been preparing for its possible introduction into the United States. Laboratories in many countries have been
trained to test for chikungunya and dengue. These skills have prepared these laboratories for Zika testing.
CDC is working with international public health partners and with state health departments to
Alert healthcare providers and the public about Zika.
Provide state health laboratories with diagnostic tests.
Detect and report cases, which will help prevent further spread.
The arrival of Zika in the Americas demonstrates the risks posed by this and other exotic viruses. CDC’s health security plans are designed to effectively monitor for
disease, equip diagnostic laboratories, and support mosquito control programs both in the United States and around the world.
MERS case in traveler from Saudi Arabia hospitalized in Indiana Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus (MERS-CoV) was confirmed today in a traveler to the United States. This virus is relatively new to humans and was first reported in Saudi Arabia in 2012. “We’ve anticipated MERS reaching the US, and we’ve prepared for and are taking swift action,” said CDC Director Tom Frieden, M.D., M.P.H. “We’re doing everything possible with hospital, local, and state health officials to find people who may have had contact with this person so they can be evaluated as appropriate. This case reminds us that we are all connected by the air we breathe, the food we eat, and the water we drink. We can break the chain of transmission in this case through focused efforts here and abroad.” On April 24, the patient traveled by plane from Riyadh, Saudi Arabia to London, England then from London to Chicago, Illinois. The patient then took a bus from Chicago to Indiana. On the 27th, the patient began to experience respiratory symptoms, including shortness of breath, coughing, and fever. The patient went to an emergency department in an Indiana hospital on April 28th and was admitted on that same day. The patient is being well cared for and is isolated; the patient is currently in stable condition. Because of the patient’s symptoms and travel history, Indiana public health officials tested for MERS-CoV. The Indiana state public health laboratory and CDC confirmed MERS-CoV infection in the patient this afternoon. “It is understandable that some may be concerned about this situation, but this first U.S. case of MERS-CoV infection represents a very low risk to the general public,” said Dr. Anne Schuchat, assistant surgeon general and director of CDC’s National Center for Immunizations and Respiratory Diseases. In some countries, the virus has spread from person to person through close contact, such as caring for or living with an infected person. However, there is currently no evidence of sustained spread of MERS-CoV in community settings. CDC and Indiana health officials are not yet sure how the patient became infected with the virus. Exposure may have occurred in Saudi Arabia, where outbreaks of MERS-CoV infection are occurring. Officials also do not know exactly how many people have had close contact with the patient. So far, including this U.S. importation, there have been 401 confirmed cases of MERS-CoV infection in 12 countries. To date, all reported cases have originated in six countries in the Arabian Peninsula. Most of these people developed severe acute respiratory illness, with fever, cough, and shortness of breath; 93 people died. Officials do not know where the virus came from or exactly how it spreads. There is no available vaccine or specific treatment recommended for the virus. “In this interconnected world we live in, we expected MERS-CoV to make its way to the United States,” said Dr. Tom Frieden, Director, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. “We have been preparing since 2012 for this possibility.” Federal, state, and local health officials are taking action to minimize the risk of spread of the virus. The Indiana hospital is using full precautions to avoid exposure within the hospital and among healthcare professionals and other people interacting with the patient, as recommended by CDC. In July 2013, CDC posted checklists and resource lists for healthcare facilities and providers to assist with preparing to implement infection control precautions for MERS-CoV. As part of the prevention and control measures, officials are reaching out to close contacts to provide guidance about monitoring their health. While experts do not yet know exactly how this virus is spread, CDC advises Americans to help protect themselves from respiratory illnesses by washing hands often, avoiding close contact with people who are sick, avoid touching their eyes, nose and/or mouth with unwashed hands, and disinfecting frequently touched surfaces. The largest reported outbreak to date occurred April through May 2013 in eastern Saudi Arabia and involved 23 confirmed cases in four healthcare facilities. At this time, CDC does not recommend anyone change their travel plans. The World Health Organization also has not issued Travel Health Warnings for any country related to MERS-CoV. Anyone who develops fever and cough or shortness of breath within 14 day after traveling from countries in or near the Arabian Peninsula should see their doctor and let them know where they travelled. For more information about MERS Co-V, please visit: Middle East Respiratory Syndrome: http://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/mers/index.html About Coronavirus: http://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/about/index.html Frequently Asked MERS Questions and Answers: http://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/mers/faq.html Indiana Department of Health http://www.state.in.us/isdh/ Speaking of www.cdc.gov – the CDC site has information on just about everything a health teacher could use (ok – zip on pay raises). So we posted a link on ebola above but now everyone is hearing about e-cigarettes. Just go to cdc.gov, go to search and hit e-cigaretttes or cancer or HIV or YRBS or pay raises!
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